CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN
UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA
OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
Hazardous Materials Management Policy
The University of Alabama is committed to full compliance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations regarding hazardous materials. The University's Office of Environmental Health and Safety has overall responsibility for policies and procedures for hazardous materials management on campus, and the Director of Environmental Health and Safety is the University's compliance officer with responsibility for oversight of hazardous materials management. The director, in consultation with the University Standing Committee on Health and Safety, is responsible (1) for developing and maintaining University policies related to the purchase, receipt, storage, transportation, use, and disposal of hazardous materials and (2) for designing and conducting training programs for University personnel regarding hazardous materials management. Colleges, schools, departments, or other units using or generating hazardous materials are responsible for maintaining accurate records to track hazardous materials from their purchase or generation through their storage or disposal. Colleges, schools, departments, or other units may develop policies or procedures for dealing with hazardous materials within their units, but these policies are subject to review by the Office of Environmental Health and Safety and must be consistent with University policies.
The Director of Environmental Health and Safety has overall responsibility for monitoring compliance with federal, state, and local regulations, and is responsible for identification of units within the University that may not be complying fully with regulations. The Director is responsible for providing notification of non-compliance to the units involved and for providing consultation regarding changes necessary to comply with regulations. When units fail to make necessary changes to comply with regulations, the Director is responsible for reporting such non-compliance to the vice president who has administrative responsibility over the unit involved. The Director of Environmental Health and Safety is responsible for reporting annually to the University Committee on Health and Safety concerning compliance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations regarding hazardous materials management.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. General Requirements
A. Definitions and Scope
B. Basic Rules
E. Guarding and Shielding
G. Flammable Hazards
J. Electrical Hazards
K. Gas Systems and Reactions
L. Compressed Gases
N. Animal Care
O. Ionizing Radiation Hazards
P. Non-ionizing Radiation Hazards
R. Right to Know
S. Chemical Disposal
T. Bloodborne Pathogens
U. Biological Safety
V. Material Safety Data Sheets
II. Safety Equipment and Procedures
A. First Aid
B. Personal Protective Equipment
C. Emergency Safety Equipment
D. Fire Safety
E. Spill Policy
H. Signs and Labeling
III. Procedures for Working with Toxic Materials
B. Chemicals of High Chronic and Acute Toxicity
D. Teratogens and Mutagens
E. Allergens and Embryotoxins
F. Animal Work with Chemicals of High Chronic Toxicity
H. Epoxy Resin Components
I. Peroxide Formers
J. Acute Respiratory Hazards
K. Corrosive Chemicals
IV. Chemical Management
A. Chemical Procurement and Storage
C. Chemical Inventory
D. New Compounds
F. Transport of Chemicals
G. Experimentation Unattended
V. Program Requirements
D. Medical Surveillance
Appendix A Threshold Limit Values
Appendix B Permissible Exposure Limits
Appendix C Peroxide Forming Chemicals
Appendix D Lab Clean-out
Appendix E Personal Protective Equipment
Appendix F Preparation of an MSDS
Appendix G Formaldehyde Program
Appendix H Carcinogens
Appendix I TSCA
Appendix J OSHA Laboratory Standard
Appendix K Internet References
Appendix L Hazardous Chemicals
I. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
A. DEFINITIONS AND SCOPE
1. "ADEM" means the Alabama Department of Environmental Management.
2. "Hazardous Chemical" means a chemical for which there is evidence based on at least one study that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees.
3. "HEPA" means a high efficiency particulate absolute filter capable of trapping 99.97% of all particles with a diameter greater than 0.3 microns.
4."Laboratory" means a facility where the laboratory use of potentially hazardous materials or chemicals occurs.
5. "OSHA" means the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Refer to Appendix J for a copy of the OSHA Laboratory Standard.
6. "PEL" means the permissible exposure level based upon an 8 hour day as established by OSHA.
7."TLV" means the threshold limit value based upon an 8 hour day as established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist.
8. "Potentially Hazardous" means that due to the characteristics of the material or the methods or equipment used, there is a significant potential for an accident or injury to occur.
9. The Chemical Hygiene Program will cover all science-related laboratories on the University of Alabama campus that present any chemical, radiological, biological or physical hazards.
B. BASIC RULES
1. Avoid skin and eye contact with all chemicals.
2. Minimize all chemical exposures.
3. Assume that all chemicals of unknown toxicity are highly toxic.
4. Post warning signs when unusual hazards, such as radiation, laser operations, flammable materials, biological hazards, or other special problems are present.
5. Avoid distracting or startling persons working in the laboratory.
6. Use equipment only for its designated purpose.
7. Combine reagents in their appropriate order.
8. Avoid adding solids to hot liquids.
9. A continued emphasis should be placed by all laboratory personnel on safety and chemical hygiene throughout the semester.
10. Never leave containers of chemicals open.
11. Unlabeled chemicals should never be used.
12. Do not taste or intentionally sniff chemicals.
13. Employees and students must not smoke, consume food or beverages, apply cosmetics or store food and beverages in areas where hazardous chemicals are used or stored.
14. Mouth suction for pipetting or starting a siphon shall not be used.
15. Wash exposed areas of the skin prior to leaving the laboratory.
16. Avoid use of contact lenses in the laboratory. If they are used, inform supervisor so special precautions can be taken.
17. Long hair and loose clothing must be confined.
18. Shoes shall be worn at all times in the laboratory. Perforated shoes or sandals are not considered appropriate.
19. Determine the potential hazards and appropriate safety precautions before beginning any work.
20. Procedures should be developed which minimize the formation and dispersion of aerosols.
21. If a chemical is produced in the laboratory whose composition is unknown, it shall be assumed the material is hazardous.
22. Keep all sink traps (including cup sink traps) filled with water by running water down the drain at least monthly. Do NOT utilize the sewer for waste disposal.
23. If possible, perform work with chemicals in a fume hood to prevent exposures to airborne substances.
24. Avoid working alone in a building; do not work alone in a laboratory if the procedures being conducted are hazardous.
25. The OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL) contained in appendix B and the Threshold Limit Values (TLV) as established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH) contained in Appendix A shall be observed in all areas.
26. Each Lab Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO) must develop and have readily available a Lab Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) for each laboratory he/she supervises, and shall review and update it at least annually.
27. Access to a controlled area such as a stockroom, specialized laboratory, waste area, etc., should be limited to as small a number of people as possible.
1. Work areas shall be kept clean and free of obstructions.
2. Waste shall be deposited in appropriate receptacles. All lab personnel must be instructed about the different kinds of waste generated and appropriate methods for disposal.
3. Sharps such as needles, scalpels, broken glass, etc. shall be placed in approved sharps containers prior to disposal. When the container is ready for disposal, it is the responsibility of the Lab CHO to secure the container and inform Housekeeping that it may be removed from the lab.
4. Surfaces should be kept clean of spilled liquids.
5. Access to exits, emergency equipment, utility controls and other safety equipment must never be blocked.
6. Hallways and stairways must not be used as storage areas. Chemicals, especially liquids, should never be stored on the floor. Nor should large bottles (2.5L or larger) be stored above the bench top.
7. Work areas shall be cleaned at the end of the operation or at least at the end of each work day.
8. Reagents, solutions, glassware, or other apparati shall not be stored in hoods. Besides reducing the available work space, they may interfere with the proper air flow pattern and reduce the effectiveness of the hood as a safety device.
1. All equipment should be regularly inspected for wear and deterioration.
2. All defective equipment should be repaired or replaced prior to further use.
3. Centrifuges should be equipped with a cover lock which does not release until spinning has stopped.
4. A written log should be maintained of all equipment inspections.
E. GUARDING AND SHIELDING
1. All mechanical equipment should be adequately furnished with guards to prevent access to electrical connections or moving parts.
2. Safety shielding should be used for any operation having the potential for an explosion or to minimize exposure to a potential hazard.
1. Tubing should be fire polished or rounded and lubricated prior to insertion into rubber stoppers.
2. Only glassware designed for vacuum work shall be used for that purpose.
3. Glass vacuum dewars shall be wrapped with tape to prevent flying glass on implosion.
4. Hand protection should be used when picking up broken glass.
5. Glassware with small chips should be fire polished to smooth them out or discarded.
6. Each laboratory shall have a specified container for broken glass/sharps.
7. Conventional laboratory glassware must never be pressurized.
G. FLAMMABLE HAZARDS
1. Do not use an open flame to heat a flammable liquid or to carry out a distillation process under reduced pressure.
2. Use an open flame only when necessary and extinguish it when no longer needed.
3. Prior to lighting a flame, remove all flammable substances from the immediate area.
4. Store flammable materials in an approved flammable cabinet.
5. When volatile materials are present, use only non-sparking explosion-proof electrical equipment such as explosion-proof refrigerators.
6. Laboratory desks and furniture should be constructed of fire-retardant materials.
1. Laboratories shall be well lighted.
2. All laboratories should have at least two exits. For those which do not, additional exits shall be provided in the event of scheduled renovation projects.
3. Steam lines must be adequately covered and insulated.
4. Modifications to the laboratory facility must not be undertaken without consultation with Facilities Planning (8-5950) and the Office of Environmental Health and Safety (EHS).
1. Records including monitoring results, medical exams, training documentation, laboratory and equipment inspections, chemical inventories, etc. must be maintained in the affected department, and EHS for an indefinite period of time.
2. Records shall be made available to the Office of EHS, ADEM, OSHA or any other agency or University department which has a legal right to review this documentation.
J. ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
1. Master shut-offs should be available in each laboratory for gas, electricity, and any other services that might involve danger should an accident occur.
2. Master shut-off switches should be easily accessible and properly labeled.
3. All electrical outlets shall be grounded and facilities should be available for grounding all electrical equipment.
4. Outlets should never be placed flush in the laboratory table top.
5. All cords and plugs shall be maintained in a safe condition.
6. Do not use cords in wet locations or in areas where chemical damage may result.
7. Extension cords shall not be used as a substitute for permanent wiring.
8. Electrical cords or other lines shall not be suspended unsupported across rooms or passageways. Do not route cords over metal objects such as emergency showers, overhead pipes or frames, metal racks, etc.
K. GAS SYSTEMS AND REACTIONS
1. Gases shall not be purified by circulation over a liquid alloy.
2. Teflon coated stirrers should not be used to agitate liquid alkali metal in gas systems.
3. Unknown reactions shall be initially run on a small scale.
4. A reagent should not be added faster than it is being consumed.
5. Precaution shall be taken to control unexpected exotherms whenever a reaction is being scaled up or run for the first time.
6. Reactions shall not be scaled up more than one order of magnitude for each time the reaction is run.
L. COMPRESSED GASES
Many laboratory operations require the use of compressed gases for analytical or instrument operations. Compressed gases present a unique hazard. Depending on the particular gas, there is a potential for simultaneous exposure to both mechanical and chemical hazards. Gases may be combustible, explosive, corrosive, poisonous, inert, or a combination of hazards. If the gas is flammable, flash points lower than room temperature compounded by high rates of diffusion (which allow for fast permeation throughout the laboratory) present a danger of fire or explosion. Additional hazards of reactivity and toxicity of the gas, as well as asphyxiation, can be caused by high concentrations of even "harmless" gases such as nitrogen. Since the gases are contained in heavy, highly pressurized metal containers, the large amount of potential energy resulting from compression of the gas makes the cylinder a potential rocket or fragmentation bomb. In summary, careful procedures are necessary for handling the various compressed gases, the cylinders containing the compressed gases, regulators or valves used to control gas flow, and the piping used to confine gases during flow. Gas cylinders must be handled in the following ways:
1. Storage shall be in a level, fire resistant area, which is well ventilated and dry.
2. Storage areas must be located away from sources of ignition or excess heat.
3. Cylinder temperature must never exceed 51 degrees C (124o F).
4. Cylinders must always be stored upright.
5. Cylinders shall be chained or strapped in place to prevent falling.
6. Cylinder caps shall be in place at all times when not in use.
7. Old, empty, or unusable cylinders shall be returned to the supplier or disposed of in a manner in accordance with all federal, state, local and incorporated guidelines.
8. Hand trucks shall be used to transport cylinders.
9. All cylinders must be labeled in a conspicuous manner as to content.
10. Acetylene should never be used under pressure in unbarricaded equipment.
11. All cylinders must be inspected for valid hydrostatic pressure tests before being accepted from the vendor.
12. Oxygen cylinders, full or empty, shall not be stored in the same vicinity as flammable gases.
13. A cylinder should never be emptied to a pressure lower than 172 kPa (25 psi/in2) (the residual contents may become contaminated if the valve is left open).
A number of hazards may be present from the use of cryogenic liquids in the laboratory. Employees should be properly trained in these hazards prior to use. The transfer of liquefied gases from one container to another should not be attempted for the first time without the direct supervision and instruction of someone experienced in the operation.
Cylinders and other pressure vessels used for the storage and handling of liquefied gases should not be filled to more than 80% of capacity, to prevent the possibility of thermal expansion and the resulting bursting of the vessel by hydrostatic pressure.
3. Embrittlement of Structural Materials
Appropriate impact-resistant containers must be used that have been designed to withstand the extremely low temperatures.
4. Contact With and Destruction of Living Tissue
As the liquid form of gases warm and become airborne, oxygen may be displaced to the point that employees may experience oxygen deficiency or asphyxiation. Any area where such materials are used should be well ventilated. For this same reason, employees should avoid lowering their heads into a dry ice chest. (Carbon dioxide is heavier than air, and suffocation can result.)
N. ANIMAL CARE
1. All procedures involving live animals shall be governed by all applicable federal guidelines and proper procedures for animal care and approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (ACUC).
2. Only properly trained personnel, as determined by the Animal Facility Director, shall be allowed to handle and dispose of animals.
3. Radioactive or toxic animals must receive special handling according to federal, state, and all applicable guidelines, the Radiation Control Advisory Committee (RCAC) and the Office of Environmental Health and Safety (EHS).
4. Approval and consultation must be received from the Institutional Biological Safety Committee (IBSC) prior to animal work related to recombinant DNA or biological agents.
O. IONIZING RADIATION HAZARDS
1. Each entrance to an area containing an ionizing radiation source must be posted with appropriate signage as directed by the U of A Radiation Safety Officer (RSO).
2. The storage, use and management of radioactive material shall be consistent with the guidelines established by the Radiation Control Advisory Committee (RCAC) and the U of A RSO.
3. All users of radioisotopes and sources of ionizing radiation must be approved prior to work, by the U of A RCAC.
P. NONIONIZING RADIATION HAZARDS
Procedures for Use of Non-ionizing Radiation Sources
2. General Laboratory
Types of Non-ionizing Radiation Hazards found in labs:
1. LASERS - Refer to the manual, Laser Safety Guidelines, available at the Office of Environmental and Health Services.
2. MAGNETIC FIELDS - Exposure should not exceed 60 mT/day (ACGIH). Magnetic fields of 0.0017 T or greater should be posted with signage. This is the threshold level for initiating asynchronous mode of a pacemaker.
3. 50/60 Hz ELECTRICAL FIELDS - Exposures should not exceed 10 kV/m (World Health Organization). Fields of greater than 10kV/m should be posted with signage restricting access to the lab.
4. RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION - Exposures should not exceed 100 W/m2 averaged for a 0.1 hour period duration over an eight hour day for the 10 mHz to 100 Ghz range (OSHA). Areas with an exposure of greater than 100 W/m2 should be posted with signage restricting access to the lab.
5. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION - For the near ultraviolet spectral region (320-400 nm) total irradiance incident upon the unprotected skin or eye should not exceed 1 mW/cm2 for periods greater than 103 seconds (approximately 16 minutes) and for exposure times less than 103 seconds should not exceed one J/cm2. For more information, see Appendix A.
6. RADIOFREQUENCY/MICROWAVE RADIATION
7. VISIBLE LIGHT The information of Threshold Limit Values reflected in Appendix Arefer to visible and near-infrared radiation in the wavelength range of 400 nm and represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be exposed without adverse effect.
8. INFRARED RADIATION To avoid possible delayed effects upon the lens of the eye, the infrared radiation (wave lenngh=770 nm) should be limited to 10 mW cm-2. See Appendix A for details.
1. General ventilation of each room should have a performance level of at least six (6) room air changes per hour.
2. General ventilation provides a source of air for breathing and makeup air for local ventilation devices, it must not be relied upon for protection from toxic substances released into the laboratory.
3. General air flow should not be turbulent and should be relatively uniform throughout the laboratory.
4. Quality and quantity of general ventilation should be evaluated at installation, whenever a change in the local or general ventilation is made, whenever significant structural modifications are made in the laboratory and at least annually.
5. Ventilation system alterations shall only be made if testing and analysis indicates that worker protection from toxic contaminants will continue to be adequate.
6. A laboratory hood with 2.5 linear feet of hood space per person shall be provided for every two workers or students if they spend most of their time working with chemicals.
7. Each hood should have a device which continuously monitors hood performance. Do not disable alarms. Know what they mean, act on what they indicate, and report the discrepancy for corrective maintenance.
8. Face velocity for Variable Air Velocity (VAV) hoods must be a minimum of 70 linear feet per minute with the sash fully open and a minimum of 100 linear feet per minute with the sash one-half open. Exception may be made for experimental low flow, energy efficient hoods whose performance is being tested. Variable Flow Vortex (VFV) hoods must have a face velocity of at least 40 fpm.
9. The hood sash should be as low as practical during use and should be closed when not in use.
10. Hoods which are used to store chemicals shall operate continuously. Hoods shall not be used as permanent storage cabinets for chemicals and equipment. If a hood is too crowded it will not function properly.
11. Ventilated storage cabinets and canopy hoods should be provided as needed.
12. Exhaust air from glove boxes and isolation chambers shall be passed through scrubbers, filtration or adsorption media prior to release.
13. The general ventilation system shall be designed to avoid the intake of contaminated air.
14. Do not start a laboratory procedure if you suspect the ventilation system cannot handle the chemical emissions.
15. Apparati such as vacuum pumps, distillation columns, chromatographs, etc. which may discharge toxic amounts of hazardous chemicals, shall be vented into a local exhaust or hood system.
16. Glove boxes and gloves shall be inspected prior to each use.
17. Negative pressure glove boxes must have a ventilation rate of at least 2 volume changes per hour.
R. RIGHT TO KNOW
1. Instruction shall be provided by the departmental or laboratory chemical hygiene officer, or a departmental representative, to all employees and students regarding the hazards of chemicals being used or stored, handling procedures, disposal procedures, a review of each Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), exposure prevention and emergency procedures.
2. Right to Know Training shall be provided at least annually.
3. Additional training shall be provided whenever procedures, conditions, chemicals, facilities, etc. change in a manner which may alter the right to know information.
4. Additional information on Chemical Hazards may be found in Appendix L.
S. CHEMICAL DISPOSAL
1. Unwanted chemicals or waste chemicals must have a completed EHS UnwantedChemicals Disposal label or the original commercial label on each container.
2. Containers of unwanted chemicals may be taken to the building/area hazardous material management program coordinator, who will notify EHS, or a lab representative may call EHS to request a direct pick-up.
3. Chemicals must not be poured down the drain or treated in any way.
4. The Hazardous Material Management Program (HMMP) document is available from the Office of Environmental Health and Safety for specific information concerning hazardous material management and disposal.
T. BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS
1. Work procedures and methods, as outlined in the University of Alabama Bloodborne Pathogen Policy, shall be utilized when working with, or potentially exposed to bloodborne pathogens.
2. A copy of the UA Bloodborne Pathogen Policy is available from the Office of EHS.
3. Any waste which is contaminated with blood or other potentially infectious materials shall be treated as Medical Waste as defined by the Alabama Department of Environmental Management (ADEM). Both the UA Bloodborne Pathogen Policy and the Institutional Biological Safety Manual provide additional information on Medical Waste.
U. BIOLOGICAL SAFETY
Approval and consultation must be received from the Institutional Biological Safety Committee (IBSC) prior to any work related to recombinant DNA or biological agents. Before any biological agents on the CDC restricted list can be transported to or from campus, EHS must be notified so that all regulatory requirements can be met. All requirements of the Biological Safety Manual must be satisfied when working with any biological agent. For more information, contact the Office of EHS.
V. MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS
1. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS’s) for each chemical stored or used shall be maintained at the departmental level and in each laboratory.
2. Material Safety Data Sheets shall be made available to any employee or student who must work with or in the immediate vicinity of chemicals.
3. Along with a copy of the MSDS, employees and students shall receive an explanation covering the information on the MSDS for each chemical used, prior to initial use.
4. The Office of Environmental Health and Safety maintains an extensive MSDS library for chemical and trade name materials. Assistance in the procurement of MSDS's is provided upon request.
5. There are multiple sites on the Internet that are excellent resources for MSDS's. Refer to Appendix K for additional information.
6. Refer to Appendix F for information on the preparation of an MSDS.
Visitor Access Policy for Laboratories and Workshops Where Hazardous Chemicals, Physical Agents, Biological Agents or any Hazardous Processes are Used is as follows:
Access to University of Alabama laboratories, workshops, and other areas housing hazardous chemicals, physical agents, or machinery is limited to trained and authorized faculty, staff and students of the UA. It is the obligation and responsibility of personnel who arrange for visits to hazardous or potentially hazardous areas to contact the individual or department in charge of the space prior to entry. The person responsible for visitors must ensure that those entering any of these areas are adequately protected from hazards and are informed about the safety and emergency procedures relevant to their activities. Other persons, in particular young children, are not permitted in hazardous work areas such as laboratories, with the exception of University sanctioned tours and visits or visits authorized by a Department. In these instances, careful supervision must be exercised by the tour leader or other knowledgeable personnel.
Exceptions to the foregoing, such as cooperative use of UA facilities and equipment by university and corporate researchers or use of university facilities and equipment by visiting scholars, must be approved by appropriate college and university officials, and must be documented by written agreements MOA (Memorandum of Agreement), Sponsored Research Agreement, etc., signed by an authorized UA official. Contact the Assistant Academic Vice President for Research to begin the process of obtaining approval for such use of university equipment and/or facilities.
II. SAFETY EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES
A. FIRST AID
1. Each individual department must establish a policy for first aid response. This policy must be posted in the lab area and all workers must be informed of its content.
2. First aid supplies should be kept and maintained in each laboratory if consistent with individual departmental policy.
3. Recommended first aid treatment for chemical burns is immediate and copious flushing of the burned area with water, for at least 15 minutes.
4. All laboratory personnel and students shall have access to emergency equipment, a fire alarm and telephone for use in an emergency.
5. If a person is injured in the laboratory, a departmental representative should immediately Notify (911 or 8-5454) University of Alabama Department of Public Safety (UADPS).
B. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
1. Protective equipment including coveralls, eye protection, gloves, respirators, etc. shall be worn and appropriate for the degree of hazard present in the laboratory. The Lab CHO must perform risk assessment for the proper selection of PPE and is responsible for the proper selection and maintenance of PPE.
2. All personnel shall be informed of PPE requirements and trained in the proper use of PPE.
3. All PPE shall be regularly checked for integrity and maintained in clean, functional order.
4. PPE shall be readily available for use at all times. If it is stored in an enclosed area, then the area must be designated by signs or labels.
5. Respirator use shall be consistent with the University of Alabama's Respiratory Protection Program which is available from the Office of EHS.
6. Eye protection shall be worn at all times by personnel and students in laboratories where hazardous chemicals are used or stored and where, because of the materials used or processes utilized, a significant potential for eye injury exists.
7. Whether or not contact lens may be worn in a lab is determined by risk assessment performed by the lab supervisor. In general, they are not used around organic solvents but may be allowed when working with aqueous chemical solutions. If use of contact lens is allowed, they must always be used in conjunction with safety goggles.
8. Refer to Appendix E for specific information regarding PPE.
C. EMERGENCY SAFETY EQUIPMENT
All laboratory personnel and students shall have access to emergency equipment, a fire alarm and a telephone for use in an emergency. Personnel should be familiar with the safety facilities and procedures in the lab. All lab workers are expected to know where the fire alarm pulls, safety showers, eye washes, spill clean-up kits and emergency exits are located.
D. FIRE SAFETY
1. Extinguishers shall be checked at least once per month to insure that they are mounted in the designated area and have not been discharged. If an extinguisher has been discharged, notify EHS.
2. Dry sand and/or other applicable materials should be present for pyrophoric metals in case of fire.
3. Before using an open flame, make sure there are not flammable vapors in the area.
4. Gas burner tubing should be examined periodically for wear.
5. All laboratory users must be knowledgeable of the operation of fire safety equipment. It is the responsibility of the Lab CHO to train lab workers in all areas of emergency fire response, including evacuation plan, alarm system, equipment operation, etc.
6. When transferring flammable liquids from one metal container to another, containers shall be bonded and grounded.
E. SPILL POLICY
1. Spills of a potentially hazardous nature should be reported immediately to the Office of Environmental Health and Safety at extension 8-5905, or extension 8-5454 after hours, on weekends, or during holidays.
2. The Office of Environmental Health and Safety personnel will handle the containment and removal of the hazardous material with the assistance of a knowledgeable supervisor from the laboratory associated with the spill.
3. Office of Environmental Health and Safety personnel will determine the need for any further action, such as ventilation of the area, summoning the fire department or evacuation.
4. If the spill is of such a nature as to be life threatening, evacuation should take place immediately.
5. Each department shall maintain a spill containment kit which is to be used when it is deemed inadvisable to wait for EHS personnel.
6. The chemical spill kit should contain: sodium bicarbonate or commercial acid neutralizer; vermiculite; citric acid or commercial caustics neutralizer, rubber gloves, pH papers, safety glasses/goggles, rubber boots and several "area closed" signs. Containment pillows and/or socks may be substituted for use in spill containment.
7. For labs with biological agents, a basic biological spill kit should include disinfectant, absorbent material, waste containers, PPE, and mechanical tools.
8. If a lab has the potential for a radiological spill, then a radiation decontaminant, such as Rad Con, should be available for decontamination.
9. The area in which a potentially hazardous spill occurs should be closed immediately and signs posted to that effect at each entrance of the area.
10. Personnel involved in cleaning a hazardous materials spill, must utilize appropriate protective equipment and supplies.
11. Waste generated from a spill clean-up must be handled appropriately.
1. There must be a posted evacuation diagram, indicating routes of egress.
2. All lab workers must be informed of the evacuation procedure and presentation of this information must be documented.
3. Immediate evacuation is necessary under the following conditions: fire alarm, notification by authorized personnel or an immediate threat to life and health.
4. If evacuation is necessary, stop all work.
5. Extinguish all flames and heat sources.
6. Proceed to the nearest exit.
7. Do not use elevators.
8. If conditions permit, supervisors should check to determine if the area is vacated.
9. Do not re-enter until instructed to do so by authorized personnel.
1. Engineering methods should be utilized at the time of design in order to reduce noise.
2. Engineering methods are the preferred technique for hearing conservation.
3. Hearing protection should only be used if engineering controls are not applicable and must be approved by the Office of Environmental and Health Services.
4. The allowable noise levels for exposure times are as follows:
|Noise Levels (dBA)||Exposure Time (hrs)|
5. If the noise level is determined to exceed the allowable noise level for exposure time, a hearing conservation program is required.
H. SIGNS AND LABELING
1. Emergency signs shall be conspicuously posted in each area where hazardous chemicals are used or stored, with the following information:
2. All containers, receptacles, etc. must be labeled as to contents.
3. Safety showers, eyewashes, fire equipment, respiratory equipment, emergency telephones, etc. should be designated by signage.
4. Laboratories or areas with unusual hazards such as a magnetic field, radioactivity, biological hazards, heat, cold, molten metals, high electrical energy, etc. shall have warning signs posted at each entrance.
5. Laboratories or areas where solvents or other flammable fire risk materials are used shall have signs posted at each entrance restricting the use of open flames and clearly stating the flammability hazard.
6. All laboratories shall be posted with signs restricting smoking and food consumption.
7. Signs shall be posted at the entrance to and throughout laboratories requiring the use of eye protection if the laboratory or area meets the criteria for required eye protection as outlined in II B.
8. Each Lab CHO must submit a Decal Request Form(s) to EHS in order that an appropriate Hazard Placard can be mounted at entrance to the lab.
The purpose of the Lockout/Tagout policy is to prevent injuries to employees/users engaged in service or maintenance activities of machines, equipment, or processes where the release of stored energy may put them at serious risk. However, as relates to laboratory safety, lockout/tagout procedures also function to protect the worker from exposure to hazardous conditions.
In addition to the general safety guidelines mentioned throughout the Plan, special precautions are needed when handling carcinogens, genotoxins, reproductive toxins and chemicals with a high degree of acute toxicity. A minimum set of guidelines that should be followed are listed below. The lab supervisor should ensure that these and other precautions designed to minimize risk of exposure to these substances are taken.
1. Quantities of these chemicals used and stored in the laboratory should be minimized, as should their concentrations in solution or mixtures.
2. Work should be performed within a functioning fume hood, ventilated glove box, sealed system, or other system designed to minimize exposure to these substances.
3. Compressed gas cylinders which contain acutely toxic chemicals such as arsine and nitrogen dioxide should (and may be required to) be kept in ventilated gas cabinets.
4. Each laboratory utilizing these substances must designate an area for this purpose and must sign or mark this area with an appropriate hazard warning. The designated area may be an entire laboratory, an area of the laboratory or a device such as a fume hood or glove box. The designated area should be marked with a DANGER, specific agent, AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY or comparable warning sign.
5. Chemicals that are known human carcinogens, mutagens and teratogens shall be used only in designated areas in the laboratory. These areas must be posted and their boundaries clearly marked.
6. Only those persons trained in the use of these chemicals will work in the designated area. Pregnant women are required to consult with EHS before working with mutagens or teratogens.
7. All such persons wishing to work with these chemicals will:
8. Laboratory workers must be trained in the hazards associated with these chemicals and the precautions to take, including proper selection and use of PPE.
9. The designated working area shall be thoroughly and appropriately decontaminated and cleaned at regular intervals.
10. Emergency response planning for releases or spills shall be prepared by the lab supervisor and included in the training of the laboratory workers and others who may be affected in the building.
B. CHEMICALS OF HIGH CHRONIC AND ACUTE TOXICITY
Laboratory workers use a variety of chemicals as part of their daily work routine. Many of these substances are potentially hazardous to a person's health. The actual hazards that a chemical may present depend not only on the properties of the chemical, but also on the manner in which it is used, and the resulting exposure to the worker. With the proper handling, even highly toxic or dangerous chemicals can be used safely. On the other hand, chemicals that are not highly toxic can be extremely hazardous if handled improperly.
Whether or not a chemical exposure will result in injury depends on many factors. In addition to the dose, the outcome of exposure is determined by the way in which a chemical enters the body, the properties of the chemical itself, and the susceptibility of the individual receiving the dose.
|Acute Toxicity||Chronic Toxicity|
|Single short exposure||Effects usually delayed|
|Effects usually appear quickly||Repeated exposure|
|Effects often reversible||Usually irreversible|
1. Work with high chronic or acutely toxic chemicals shall be done in a controlled or restricted access laboratory.
2. All glassware, equipment, fixtures, etc., must be thoroughly decontaminated prior to removal from the controlled laboratory.
3. Vacuum pumps shall be protected from contamination by scrubbers or HEPA filters.
4. Contaminated equipment, supplies, glassware, etc. shall be decontaminated or managed as hazardous waste.
5. The controlled laboratory must be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal activity.
6. When exiting a controlled laboratory, remove any protective clothing, place it in a designated waste container and thoroughly wash hands, arms, face and neck.
7. Only wet cleaning methods and/or a HEPA filter equipped vacuum must be used for housekeeping.
8. If cancer causing substances are used, a medical surveillance program should be initiated.
9. Controlled laboratories shall be marked on the exterior of all entrances with signs stating "WARNING RESTRICTED ACCESS".
1. 9th Report on Carcinogens 2000 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service National Toxicology Program
For more information on Carcinogens and Probable Carcinogens, go to the Environmental Health Information Service website, at http://ehis.niehs.nih.gov/roc/toc9.html or refer to Appendix H.
2. Federal regulations govern work with all listed carcinogens. All precautions outlined in Section III A must be observed.
3. Containers of waste from experiments involving appreciable amounts of weak, moderate or controlled carcinogens should be labeled as to content and the warning: "CANCER SUSPECT AGENT".
4. Refer to Appendix G for the UA Formaldehyde Program.
D. TERATOGENS AND MUTAGENS
1. Mutagens and teratogens may affect the embryo or fetus or may affect the genetic makeup of the exposed person in such as way as to produce cancer or disease in later generations.
2. Strict safety precautions, such as not allowing the chemicals to touch the skin or to be inhaled, must be used.
3. Some common chemicals that are known to or are highly suspected to affect the embryo or fetus include but are not limited to:
|Benzene||Vinyl Chloride||Hydrogen sulfide|
4. If the storage container is breakable it must be kept in an impermeable, unbreakable, secondary container having sufficient capacity to retain the material should the primary container be broken.
5. Each container should be labeled as to the specific toxin contained.
E. ALLERGENS AND EMBRYOTOXINS
1. Wear appropriate protective apparel to prevent skin contact.
2. Embryotoxins shall only be used in a functional fume hood.
3. Wash hands and arms thoroughly after chemical usage
F. ANIMAL WORK WITH CHEMICALS OF HIGH CHRONIC TOXICITY
1. Whenever possible, administer chemicals by injection or gavage instead of feeding the chemical in the diet.
2. A caging system with HEPA filtration under negative pressure shall be utilized.
3. Procedures to minimize the formation of air contaminants from urine, feces and the animal feeding system must be developed and used.
4. Wet methods and/or a HEPA filtered vacuum shall be used for cleaning and disposal of contaminated bedding.
5. Animal food treated with chemicals of high chronic toxicity shall be mixed in a closed container or under a hood.
6. Gloves and disposable clothing shall be worn.
7. If total suppression of aerosols and/or dust cannot be achieved, appropriate respirators and full body disposable coveralls shall be worn.
8. All waste shall be disposed of in a manner consistent with federal and state regulations. Contact the Office of Environmental and Health Services (8-5905) for assistance.
The use of chemicals in Pest Control is regulated by the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) as well as the EPA Worker Protection Standard (WPS) 40 CFR Part 170. Under certain circumstances an investigator is required to apply to EPA for permit to conduct experimentation with pesticides and to subsequently meet certain requirements in laboratory practices. If there is any question about having to satisfy these conditions, contact EHS.
H. EPOXY RESIN COMPONENTS
1. All potentially exposed persons shall be instructed as to the potential health hazards.
2. All skin contact with the components must be eliminated.
3. If any skin contact occurs, immediately wash area with soap and water.
4. Soap should be acidic or neutral.
5. If any component contacts clothing, remove the garment immediately and wash the effected skin under the area.
6. All epoxy resin work should be done in exhaust ventilated enclosures or hoods.
7. Ovens used for curing must have their vents exhausted to the outside of the building.
8. Disposable containers and stirring rods shall be used to mix and work the resin.
9. Disposable items shall be discarded in containers specifically for epoxy resin waste.
10. Containers used for waste must be labeled as containing epoxy resin waste.
11. All epoxy resin waste must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
12. All non-disposable items used with the resin components shall be cleaned immediately after use.
I. PEROXIDE FORMERS
Minimize the hazards associated with peroxidizable compounds. Commonly used solvents such as ether, dioxane, and Tetrahydrofuran (THF) can form explosive peroxides after exposure to air. Peroxide formers should be labeled with the date the container is opened. Store the compounds in an obvious location where they will not be forgotten and where they can be readily checked. Check peroxide formers for peroxides every six months after opening, or dispose of them. Since these chemicals may be packaged in an air atmosphere, peroxides can form even though the container has not been opened, necessitating careful handling. See Appendix C for a list of materials which may form peroxides.
1. Date all peroxidizables upon receipt and upon opening. Dispose of or check for Peroxide formation after the recommended time; 3-months or one year depending on the chemical. See Appendix C.
2. Do not open any container which has obvious solid formation around the lid.
3. Addition of an inhibitor to quench the formation of peroxides is recommended.
4. It is recommended to chemically test for peroxides periodically.
5. Follow the same basic handling procedures as for flammable materials.
6. Metal spatulas shall not be used with peroxidizables.
7. Glass containers with glass stoppers must not be used.
J. ACUTE RESPIRATORY HAZARDS
The below listed chemicals are some common acute respiratory hazards and should not be used in a confined area. They should be dispensed and handled only in a hood.
|Ammonium hydroxide||Hydriodic acid||Methyl fluorosulfonate|
|Anhydrous ammonia||Hydrobromic acid||Dimethyl oxychloride|
|Bromine||Hydroflouric acid||Sulfur dioxide|
|Carbon monoxide||Hydrogen selenide||Stibine|
|Chlorine||Hydrogen sulfide||Thionyl Chloride|
K. CORROSIVE CHEMICALS
The major classes of corrosive chemicals are strong acids and bases, dehydrating agents, and oxidizing agents. These chemicals can erode the skin and the respiratory epithelium and are particularly damaging to the eyes. Inhalation of vapors or mists of these substances can cause severe bronchial irritation. If your skin is exposed to a corrosive, flush the exposed area with water for at least fifteen minutes. Then seek medical treatment.
All concentrated acids can damage the skin and eyes and their burns are very painful. Nitric, chromic, and hydrofluoric acids are especially damaging because of the types of burns they inflict. Seek immediate medical treatment if you have been contaminated with these materials (particularly hydrofluoric acid).
The common strong bases used in the labs are potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and ammonia. Burns from these materials are often less painful than acids. However, damage may be more severe than acid burns because the injured person, feeling little pain, often does not take immediate action and the material is allowed to penetrate into the tissue. Ammonia is a severe bronchial irritant and should always be used in a well-ventilated area, if possible in a hood.
This group of chemicals includes concentrated sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, phosphorus pentoxide, and calcium oxide. Because much heat is evolved on mixing these substances with water, mixing should always be done by adding the agent to water, and not the reverse, to avoid violent reaction and spattering. Because of their affinity for water, these substances cause severe burns on contact with skin. Affected areas should be washed promptly with large volumes of water.
In addition to their corrosive properties, powerful oxidizing agents such as perchloric and chromic acids (sometimes used as cleaning solutions), present fire and explosion hazards on contact with organic compounds and other oxidizable substances. The hazards associated with the use of perchloric acid are especially severe. It should be handled only after thorough familiarization with recommended operating procedures.
Special Handling Procedures
Perchloric acid. If perchloric acid is heated above ambient temperature it may evaporate and condense on ductwork in the form of explosive perchlorates. Hence, when heating perchloric acid above ambient temperature, a perchloric acid fume hood with a water wash down system or a local scrubbing or trapping system must be used.
Hydrofluoric Acid – Emergency Procedures
First aid must be started within seconds in the event of contact of any form!
Skin Exposure to HF
Eye or Inhalation Exposures to HF
IV. CHEMICAL MANAGEMENT
A. CHEMICAL PROCUREMENT AND STORAGE
1. Before a chemical is received, information on the proper handling, storage and disposal procedures shall be known to any personnel or students who will be involved with its use.
2. Chemicals must not be accepted without an adequate identifying label.
3. Stockrooms and/or storerooms should not be used as preparation area.
4. Stockrooms and/or storerooms should be open during normal University hours, shall have an employee assigned responsible for the area and shall be a controlled access area.
5. Stored chemicals shall be examined periodically by the appropriate lab chemical hygiene officer for deterioration, container integrity, and possible need for replacement.
6. Stockroom and/or storerooms must have a storage methodology which allows for segregation of different classes of materials (i.e. acids, bases, flammables, reactives, highly toxic, etc.).
7. Chemicals shall not be stored on bench tops.
8. Toxic chemical storage areas should be clearly designated by signage or placarding.
9. Chemicals that are highly toxic shall be in unbreakable secondary containers.
10. Check the integrity of containers. Observe compatibility of the chemical with the type container used. For example, hydrofluoric acid must not be stored in glass and some oxidizers should not be stored in plastic containers.
11. If chemicals are hand carried, the chemicals shall be placed within an unbreakable secondary container.
12. All chemical purchases shall be made through the purchasing agent designated by the University as responsible for buying chemicals.
13. Do not store unnecessary chemicals in the hood. Highly toxic chemicals, chemicals with a foul odor, etc. may be stored in a hood if a vented storage cabinet is not available.
14. Chemicals shall not be stored higher than eye level.
15. All containers must be labeled as to content.
16. Shelving should be equipped with ledges.
17. Chemicals should be received at the individual department or area by a person so designated for this responsibility by the department or area.
18. Chemicals shall be segregated by hazard classification and compatibility and then arranged alphabetically within chemical families.
19. Chemicals, equipment, and lab supplies at the University of Alabama are not available for sale to the general public.
20. Any donations of chemicals or equipment must be approved by the Department Chair.
Chemical Segregation/Compatible Storage
To avoid unwanted reactions, keep chemicals separated by hazard class whenever possible. The Office of EHS recommends the following hazard classes for separating chemicals:
Laboratories with large numbers of hazard classifications may choose to further segregate mineral/organic acids, unstable compounds, heat sensitive compounds, gases, etc.
Many chemicals, when mixed with other materials, can produce effects which are harmful to human health and the environment, such as heat or pressure, fire or explosion, violent reactions, toxic dusts, mists, fumes, or gases, or flammable fumes or gases. Precautions should also be taken not to store these chemicals together.
Following are examples of potentially incompatible chemicals and materials along with the harmful consequences which result from mixing materials in one group with materials in another group.
This list is not intended to be exhaustive. A more comprehensive listing is available from the Office of Environmental Health and Safety.
In the following lists, the mixing of a Group A material with a Group B material may have the potential consequences as noted.
Alkaline caustic liquids
Alkaline corrosive liquids
Lime and water
Acid and water
Etching acid liquid or solvent
Pickling liquor and other corrosive acids
Spent mixed acid
Spent sulfuric acid
Potential consequences: Heat generation reaction
Other reactive metals and metal hydrides
Any materials in Group 1-A or 1-B
Potential consequences: Fire or explosion; generation of flammable hydrogen gas
Any concentrated material in Groups 1-A or 1-B
SO2CL2, SOCL2, PCL3, CH3, SiCL3
Potential consequences: Fire, explosion, or heat generation; generation of flammable or toxic gases.
Other reactive organic compounds and solvents
Concentrated Group 1-A or 1-B materials
Group 2-A materials
Potential consequences: Fire, explosion, or violent reaction
Spent cyanide and sulfide solutions
Group 1-B wastes
Potential consequences: Generation of toxic hydrogen cyanide or hydrogen sulfide gas.
Nitric Acid, fuming
Other strong oxidizers
Acetic acid and other organic acids
Concentrated mineral acids
Group 2-A materials
Group 4-A materials
Other flammable and combustible materials
Potential consequences: Fire, explosion, or violent reaction.
C. CHEMICAL INVENTORY
D. NEW COMPOUNDS
Some laboratories may synthesize or develop new chemical substances on occasion. If the composition of the substance is known and will be used exclusively in the laboratory, the laboratory worker must label the substance and determine, to the best of his/her abilities, the hazardous properties (e.g., corrosive, flammable, reactive, toxic, etc.) of the substance. This can often be done by comparing the structure of the new substance with the structure of similar materials with known hazardous properties. If the chemical produced is of unknown composition, it must be assumed to be hazardous, and appropriate precautions taken.
If a chemical substance is produced for another user outside this facility, the laboratory producing the substance is required to provide as much information as possible regarding the identity and known hazardous properties of the substance to the receiver of the material. All chemicals must be adequately labeled upon arrival in the lab. (Refer to Appendix F, How to write an MSDS.)
1. All chemicals must be prominently and accurately labeled as to content. The full chemical name must be in English. Formulas and abbreviations are not acceptable.
2. Unlabeled chemicals must not be used.
3. All chemicals transferred to secondary containers should be labeled with appropriate hazard identification information.
4. If you use secondary working containers that will take more than one work shift to empty, or if there is a chance that someone else will handle the container before you finish it, you must label it.
5. Label all secondary containers with the chemical name and appropriate hazards. An excellent resource for printing secondary labels is: http://www.ehs.cornell.edu/lrs/labels.toc.htm
6. Make sure all labels are legible and in tact. Secondary labels should be secured with transparent tape that encircles the container.
7. Date all peroxidizable and other chemicals which may become unstable over time. They should display both the arrival date and date opened.
F. TRANSPORT OF CHEMICALS
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Customs Office require that all chemicals (including chemical samples) imported into or exported out of the U.S. must be certified. The type of certification required depends on whether the chemical is listed by EPA under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). International shipments of chemical samples require a TSCA certification. Contact EHS for if you intend to import or export any chemical. See Appendix I for additional information.
G. Experimentation left unattended
If lab workers initiate equipment or experimentation that is potentially dangerous, and must leave it unattended for a long period of time or even overnight, then generally acceptable safety procedures should be met. These are:
V. PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS
1. The President of the University of Alabama has the ultimate responsibility for enforcing the Chemical Hygiene Plan and shall, with other administrators, provide continual support for the institutional Chemical Hygiene Program.
2. The supervisor or chair of the department or other administrative unit is responsible for chemical hygiene in that unit.
3. The laboratory supervisor (Laboratory Chemical Hygiene Officer) has overall responsibility for chemical hygiene in the laboratory, including responsibility to:
4. The laboratory employee and/or student is responsible for:
5. The Office of Environmental Health and Safety is responsible for:
A. Working with administrators and laboratory personnel and/or students to develop and implement appropriate chemical hygiene policies and practices.
B. Monitoring procurement, use and disposal of laboratory chemicals.
C. Ensuring that adequate documentation is maintained by the individual departments.
D. Conducting laboratory safety surveys.
E. Assisting with training programs as needed or requested.
F. The Director of EHS or his representative shall serve as the University Chemical Hygiene Officer.
G. Providing assistance to departments, administrators, laboratory personnel or students and the campus community as needed.
H. Providing industrial hygiene monitoring and services as needed.
I. Serving as the University documentation depository and information source.
1. Employee exposure monitoring shall be provided by the Office of EHS if there is reason to believe that exposure levels exceed the action levels in Appendix B.
2. Regular monitoring shall be conducted by the Office of EHS in laboratories where hazardous chemicals are routinely used.
3. Monitoring and analysis shall be conducted in a manner consistent with NIOSH National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) methodology or recognized competent practices.
4. The Office of EHS shall within 15 work days after the receipt of any monitoring results, notify the affected employees or students in writing, either individually or by posting the results in an area accessible to the employees and/or students.
1. Initial training sessions related to the UA Chemical Hygiene Plan will be offered to all employees and students. Documented student participants will not be required to repeat initial UA CHP training unless the plan undergoes major changes.
2. Annual lab safety retraining for employees is the responsibility of Lab CHO's.
3. The Lab CHO will be responsible for training/informing lab workers regarding the following matters:
a. Content of Lab CHP.
b. Availability and location of CHP’s (UA, Dept., Lab)
c. Availability of reference material describing laboratory hazards i.e. MSDS’s, Bloodborne Pathogen Policy, Biological Safety Plan, Laser Safety Guidelines, Radiation Safety, etc.
d. Location and proper use of emergency equipment.
e. Response to a fire, including evacuation plan and use of emergency equipment.
4. As employees and/or students are affected by the requirements of the chemical hygiene program they shall receive initial training prior to their assignment which places them in a laboratory covered by these requirements.
5. Training related to the hazards, chemical usage, procedures, MSDS’s, etc. for a specific laboratory shall be provided to affected personnel and/or students by the laboratory chemical hygiene officer.
6. Additional training shall be provided by the laboratory or departmental chemical hygiene officer whenever procedures, conditions, chemical usage, facilities, etc. change in a manner which may alter the chemical hygiene plan.
7. The Office of EHS shall assist in the initial and annual training sessions and provide training information and further assistance as requested.
D. MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
1. An employee and/or student shall be provided medical consultation and examination whenever:
2. All medical exams and consultations shall be performed by a licensed physician and provided without cost to the employee or student without a loss of pay.
3. The employer or department (in the case of students) shall provide the following information to the physician:
4. The employer or department (in the case of a student) shall obtain from the examining physician a written opinion which shall include the following:
5. The physician's written opinion shall not reveal findings or diagnoses unrelated to the exposure.
6. Employees shall be sent to Capstone Medical Center for evaluation and examination.
7. Students shall be sent to Russell Student Health Center for evaluation and examination.
THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES
This appendix gives the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) for chemical substances and Physical Agents in the Work Environment and the Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) that were adopted by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).
PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMITS
This appendix gives the Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) as set forth in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards (Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1910, Subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances, Section 1910.1000, Air Contaminants, revised July 1, 1985).
Most OSHA PELs were promulgated initially from the 1968 ACGIH list of Threshold Limit Values (TLV's). However, as part of the law, the PELs represent the legal maximum levels of contaminants in workroom air.
Class I: Unsaturated materials, especially those of low molecular weight, may polymerize violently due to peroxide initiation. Discard or test for peroxides after 6 months (liquids) or 12 months (gases).
Class II: The following chemicals are a peroxide hazard upon concentration (distillation / evaporation). A test for peroxides should be performed if concentration is intended or suspected. Discard or test for peroxides 6 months after container is opened.
diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (diglyme)
ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (glyme)
Class III: Peroxides derived from the following compounds may explode without concentration. Discard 3 months after opening container.
sodium amide (sodamide)
Note: Lists are illustrative, but not exhaustive.
Source: National Research Council. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C. 1995.
Peroxide Detection Tests
The following test can detect most (but not all) peroxy compounds, including hydroperoxides. NONE of these tests should be applied to materials (such as metallic potassium) that may be contaminated with inorganic peroxides.
Add 1-3 ml of the liquid to be tested to an equal volume of acetic acid, add a few drops of 5% aqueous potassium iodide solution, and shake. The appearance of a yellow to brown color indicates the presence of peroxides.
Addition of 1 ml of a freshly prepared 10% solution of potassium iodide to 10 ml of an organic liquid in a 25 ml glass cylinder should produce a yellow color if peroxides are present.
Add 0.5 ml of the liquid to be tested to a mixture of 1 ml of 10% aqueous potassium iodide solution and 0.5 ml of dilute hydrochloric acid to which has been added a few drops of starch solution just prior to the test. The appearance of a blue or blue-black color within a minute indicates the presence of peroxides.
Peroxide test strips, which turn to an indicative color in the presence of peroxides, are available commercially. Note that these strips must be air dried until the solvent evaporates and then exposed to moisture for proper operation.
Source: National Research Council. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C. 1995.
Policy and Procedures For
Laboratory Clean-Out Of Hazardous Materials
A policy is established for the "Laboratory Clean-out of Hazardous Materials" to assure that hazardous materials are disposed of properly when faculty, staff, postdoctoral associate, or graduate student transfer to a different laboratory or leave the University. This policy will reduce the number of unwanted and unknown hazardous materials in laboratories, reduce waste disposal costs, and provide laboratory personnel with a healthful, safe, and clean place to work. This policy specifies responsibilities of the individual and department and the procedures that must be followed for the proper disposition of hazardous materials.
Sample Laboratory Checkout List
Each faculty member, graduate, postdoctoral, and undergraduate student shall have this form signed by the Lab CHO and department head before leaving the department.
Name:________________________ Building:_________________ Room:_________
*Inventory and label all chemicals and chemical waste in the laboratory. All areas of the laboratory should be inspected including refrigerators, acid and flammable storage cabinets, shelves, and drawers
*Transfer chemicals in good condition to another researcher or to EHS Re-Use and Exchange Program.
Compressed Gas Cylinders
*Return to distributor/supplier
*Report lecture size cylinders to EHS
*Inventory all controlled substances and dispose of in accordance with state and federal laws. Notify EHS for instructions.
*Inventory and label all materials
*Transfer usable materials to another researcher
*Decontaminate and dispose of biohazardous waste
*Send inventory of all reusable material to EHS
*Return film badge (if one has been issued) to EHS
*Contact EHS, Radiological Safety for checkout procedures
Hazardous Waste Disposal
*Properly package, cap, and label all hazardous material.
*Characterize all "Unknown" chemicals as completely as possible and give list to EHS
*Fill out Hazardous Waste Request Form and return to EHS
Defective Equipment/Laboratory Repairs
*Report to Lab CHO or department head for repair or replacement.
Signature: Lab CHO _____________________ Date: ___________
Department Chair ________________________ Date: ___________
cc: Office of Health and Safety Director, Environmental Health Safety
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Personal protective equipment (PPE) is special gear used to protect the wearer from specific hazards of a hazardous substance. It is a last resort protection system, to be used when substitution or engineering controls are not feasible. PPE does not reduce or eliminate the hazard, protects only the wearer, and does not protect anyone else.
PPE includes respiratory protection, eye protection, protective clothing and gloves. The need for PPE is dependent upon the type of operations and the nature and quantity of the materials in use, and must be assessed on a case by case basis. Workers who rely on PPE must understand the functioning, proper use, and limitations of the PPE used.
Respirators, when properly selected and used, can offer protection against a wide variety of airborne contaminants. However, respiratory protection should only be used when other methods of control are not effective or impractical. All respirator use must comply with the University's Respiratory Protection Program. Provisions of the program include requirements for training, regular fit testing, and medical evaluations. A respirator cannot be fitted on a person with a beard. Copies of the UA Respiratory Protection Program are available from EHS upon request.
Respiratory protection can be divided into two groups, air-purifying and supplied air. Air-purifying respirators work by filtering contaminant laden air through a cartridge or canister attached to the mask. The respirator is only effective for those contaminants the cartridge is designed for and if the respirator is properly fitted. Air-purifying respirators generally can reduce exposure by a factor of 10 to 50 depending on the type used.
Supplied air respirators consist of airline and self contained breathing apparatus. These respirators work by supplying the user a safe atmosphere to breath independent of the one they are working in. Supplied air respirators can reduce exposure by a factor of 50 to 10,000.
Requests to use respiratory protection shall be directed to EHS. EHS will perform a hazard assessment of the operation necessitating the use of the respirator and help determine the proper equipment for the situation. EHS will also advise staff of obligations under the respiratory protection program.
Eye and Face Protection
OSHA requires that employees wear eye or face protection whenever a potential exists for accident or injury. Any use of corrosive materials or fast moving equipment, such as centrifuges, shall constitute such a potential. Where these situations exist, emergency eyewash and shower equipment shall be provided in addition to safety glasses, goggles, and/or faceshields. Faceshields shall be used when potential exists for both eye and skin injury. Goggles used shall be resistant to the types of chemicals used. Also, if splashing or vapor penetration is possible, goggles designed for such hazards must be used. Ultraviolet face shields should be available for use with uv lamps and transilluminators.
In the past, it was recommended that contact lenses never be used when working with or around hazardous materials. The lenses can trap particulates or chemicals against the eye, causing damage. However, recent research and modern lens have resulted in less rigid requirements governing the use of contact lens in labs. At the University of Alabama, the policy adopted is as follows:
Labcoats shall be worn while performing chemical operations in which potential for dangerous spills or splashing may occur. Similarly, during these operations, full shoes should be worn. Shorts shall never be worn in a lab, unless covered by a labcoat or other suitable clothing which covers the knees. Where splashing is possible, such as with large material transfers, splash aprons should be provided. If at any time, a toxic or corrosive material contacts clothing, the affected clothing should be immediately removed and the affected area rinsed under an emergency shower or sink.
Other than safety glasses, gloves will likely be the most frequently used personal protective equipment by laboratory staff. Like other equipment, gloves must be properly selected and used for the materials to be worked with. Gloves can be purchased in a variety of materials each offering a limited ability to resist chemical breakthrough. Lab personnel must familiarize themselves with the limitations of the gloves they are using and the compatibility of the glove material with chemicals likely to be encountered. To assist with proper glove material selection, refer to the following discussion of glove selection and chemical compatibility.
(Selected from the AT&T Bell Laboratories Chemical Hygiene Plan)
Intent: To provide guidance for the selection, use and care of protective gloves.
1. Protective gloves shall be worn where there is reasonable probability of skin contact with irritant or corrosive chemicals or with chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin.
2. Protective gloves that provide protection against cuts and abrasions shall be worn when handling sharp, rough or abrasive objects.
3. Gloves that provide thermal insulation shall be worn when hot or very cold objects must be handled.
4. Gloves should be selected on the basis of the materials being handled, the physical conditions that exist, and the requirements of the tasks performed.
5. Before each use, chemical resistant gloves shall be inspected for punctures, tears or other signs of degradation and new gloves used if these conditions are found.
6. All glove materials are permeable to some extent. A suitable glove is one that has an acceptably low permeation for the chemical, concentration, and for the degree and duration of contact. Permeation is generally inversely related to glove thickness.
7. Thin cotton gloves worn under rubber gloves improve comfort by absorbing perspiration during prolonged use. They also reduce chances for skin absorption by separating the glove surface and the skin. However, if the cotton lining contacts a hazardous material, it can act as a wick and soak up the hazardous material.
8. Gloves, other than single use types, should be decontaminated before removal by rinsing or washing.
9. Special gloves are manufactured for use by electricians, welders and others. It is the responsibility of the supervisor to determine whether such specialized hand protection is needed and to make sure that it is readily available when needed.
Degradation is the physical deterioration of a glove material that is caused by chemical contact. Degradation may cause the glove to soften or swell or, in some cases, to become hard and brittle.
Breakthrough Time is the elapsed time between the initial contact of a glove material with a liquid chemical and the time that the chemical can be detected on the inside surface of the glove.
Penetration the flow of a liquid chemical through pores, imperfections or holes in a glove material. Leather, fabric or composite gloves that are designed to prevent cuts, abrasions and thermal burns will be penetrated by liquid chemicals and should not be used to prevent chemical contact.
Permeation Rate is the highest rate of chemical transfer through a glove material during the test. It is usually expressed as mg/m2/sec. But some glove manufacturers only report semi-quantitative results such as "Excellent", "Good", "Poor", etc. Computer programs are available that provide quantitative information on different glove types.
Liquid-Proof gloves are those that have adequate degradation and permeation resistance for a specific application. Variables affecting performance are thickness, the method of manufacture, and the concentration of the chemical.
Guide for Glove Selection:
Some chemical resistant glove materials commonly available are described in the table on the following page. This is not intended to be a complete list. For chemical protective gloves, factors other than chemical resistance are also important.
Resistance to abrasion
Tear and puncture resistance
Length (arm protection)
Grip characteristics wet/dry
The recommendations are a guide, not a guarantee. The recommendations may not hold for some mixtures or extreme use conditions (e.g., high and low temperature, long term contact, high abrasion, etc.) nor do they consider problems associated with reuse. Specific questions should be addressed to the Chemical Hygiene Officer.
CHEMICAL RESISTANT GLOVES
Nuisance materials, medical examination, preventing product contamination
Flock lined, 15 mils thick
Flock lined, 18 mils thick
Surgeons type, 9 mils thick or Flock lined, 18 mils thick
PREPARATION OF AN MSDS
This section provides information for researchers who may need to prepare an MSDS. An MSDS must be prepared for a newly created hazardous chemical or an intermediate product produced in a chemical reaction if:
Note: If a newly created hazardous chemical is going to be used by a number of persons over time it may be required that a Right-to-Know chemical container label be prepared for the new chemical.
Following is a blank MSDS form (OSHA Form 174) which you may copy and use to create an MSDS for a chemical you have produced. It is important to consider that all sections must be completed when writing an MSDS. If a particular characteristic is unknown, you must state "unknown" or "not available" or "N/A." Under Section V, Health Hazard Data, you may be able to say, "The toxicological effects of this chemical have not (or not fully) been investigated."
Material Safety Data Sheet
U.S. Department of Labor
May be used to comply with
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard,
29 CFR 1910.1200. This Standard must be
consulted for specific requirements.
OMB No. 1218-0072
IDENTITY (As Used on Label and List)
Note: Blank spaces are not permitted. If any item is not applicable, or no information is available, the space must be marked to indicate that.
Emergency Telephone Number
Address (Number, Street, City, State, and ZIP Code)
Telephone Number for Information
Signature of Preparer (optional)
Section II - Hazard Ingredients/Identity Information
Hazardous Components (Specific Chemical Identity; Common Name(s))
Section III - Physical/Chemical Characteristics
Specific Gravity (H2O = 1)
Vapor Pressure (mm Hg.)
Vapor Density (AIR = 1)
Solubility in Water
Appearance and Odor
Section IV - Fire and Explosion Hazard Data
Flash Point (Method Used)
Special Fire Fighting Procedures
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards
Section V - Reactivity Data
Conditions to Avoid
Incompatibility (Materials to Avoid)
Hazardous Decomposition or Byproducts
Conditions to Avoid
Will Not Occur
Section VI - Health Hazard Data
Route(s) of Entry:
Health Hazards (Acute and Chronic)
Signs and Symptoms of Exposure
Emergency and First Aid Procedures
Section VII - Precautions for Safe Handling and Use
Steps to Be Taken in Case Material is Released or Spilled
Waste Disposal Method
Precautions to Be taken in Handling and Storing
Section VIII - Control Measures
Respiratory Protection (Specify Type)
Other Protective Clothing or Equipment
Section IX - Special Precautions
Precautions to be taken in Handling and Storing
Each MSDS must be reviewed for correctness and completeness every three years.
Reviewed by ________________________ Reviewed by ________________________
Revision date ________________________ Revision date _______________________
UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA
FORMALDEHYDE WRITTEN PROGRAM
This written program addresses each of the individual sections of the OSHA standard with referral to supplementary materials.
The standard applies to all occupational exposures to formaldehyde gas, formaldehyde solutions, and formaldehyde.
Formaldehyde means the chemical substance, HCHO, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 50-00-0.
Permissible exposure limit (PEL) is the exposure limit for a substance established by OSHA. The PEL indicates the permissible concentration of air contaminants to which workers may be repeatedly exposed to for 8 hours a day and 40 hours a week over a working lifetime of 30 years without adverse health effects. No employee may be exposed to airborne formaldehyde exceeding the 8 hour time weighted average of 0.75 parts per million (ppm), as set by the standard. In areas where airborne formaldehyde levels exceed 0.75 ppm, the controls to be discussed must be instituted.
Short-term exposure limit (STEL) is the concentration to which workers can be continuously exposed for short periods of time without suffering from:
2) chronic or irreversible tissue damage, or
3) narcosis of sufficient degree to increase the likelihood of accidental injury, to impair self-rescue or to materially reduce work efficiency – provided also that corresponding TWA has not been exceeded.
STELs are usually 15 minutes. No employee may be exposed to airborne formaldehyde exceeding the STEL, which is set at 2.0 ppm. Exposures to airborne formaldehyde above the STEL require the use of controls.
Time weighted average (TWA) is the employee’s average airborne exposure in any 8-hour work shift of any 40-hour week to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day, without suffering any adverse effects. It is a value that shall not be exceeded.
Action Level (AL) is an 8-hour time weighted average concentration for which there is only a 5% risk of having more than 5% of the employee workdays involve an exposure level greater than the relevant PEL-TWA. This value is more frequently set at or near 50% of the PEL-TWA. The action level for formaldehyde means a concentration of 0.5 part formaldehyde per million parts of air (0.5 ppm) calculated as an 8-hour time weighted average concentration.
EHS shall monitor employees for formaldehyde exposure when exposure is to formaldehyde gas, mixtures or solutions with more than 0.1% formaldehyde or materials capable of releasing formaldehyde into the air under normal conditions where the concentration is equal to or exceeds 0.1 ppm. Health complaints possibly associated with formaldehyde exposure also trigger a requirement to monitor. If objective data can document that the presence of formaldehyde cannot cause exposure above the action level or STEL, exposure monitoring is not required.
When exposures exceed the action level, monitoring is to be conducted at least every six months. When the STEL is exceeded, monitoring is repeated at least once a year under worst conditions. Monitoring can be terminated when two consecutive and statistically representative samples, at least seven days apart, show exposure to be below the action level and the STEL. Employees must be notified of results in writing within 15 days of EHS receiving results. When exposure is over the 8-hour TWA or the STEL, EHS shall develop a plan of corrective action. Employees have a right to observe monitoring and to have appropriate protective gear made available by the University while doing so.
When formaldehyde exposure exceeds the 8-hour TWA or STEL, the area is to be designated as a restricted area. Entrances must be posted and access restricted to authorized personnel with appropriate training. These restrictions must be communicated to employees of other employers, such as construction contractors, with operations at the worksite in question.
METHODS OF COMPLIANCE
These methods must be used when either the 8-hour TWA or STEL is exceeded. These methods include, in order of descending primacy, engineering controls, work practice controls, respirators and other personal protective equipment. When feasible, engineering and work practice controls cannot reduce exposure below either of the PELs, appropriate respirators may be used as a supplement.
Employees should work with formaldehyde only in an approved chemical fume hood. Supervisors should exhaust all engineering controls and work practice controls prior to implementation of respiratory protection.
Such equipment, when required, must be supplied at no cost to the employee. EHS must be consulted before respirator usage is implemented. At that time, training, fit testing, and cartridge/canister selection and replacement will be discussed.
The UA Respiratory Protection Program requirements must be met prior to respirator use.
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING
Protective equipment also must be provided at no cost to the employee. Any contact of eyes and skin with liquids containing 1% or more of formaldehyde must be prevented by the use of protective equipment and clothing. Only formaldehyde impervious clothing (i.e. tyvek, coveralls), goggles and face shields appropriate to the operation must be used.
Contact EHS for help in proper selection, usage, and equipment maintenance.
Changing facilities, eye washes and drench showers are required under this section. Immediate access to such equipment must be provided.
Most laboratories have eyewashes and showers. However, if a laboratory does not have an eyewash and shower, contact EHS personnel to help evaluate your degree of compliance to this requirement.
Regular visual inspection for leaks and spills should be conducted. Provisions must be made for spill containment, work area decontamination and waste disposal. Sealed containers holding debris from spills must be labeled to indicate the presence and associated hazards of formaldehyde.
EHS can assist with emergency response for various types of accidents. The MSDS also contains relevant information.
The University shall institute medical surveillance programs for all employees who are exposed to formaldehyde at concentrations at or exceeding the action level or the STEL and for any employees who develop signs and symptoms of over exposure to formaldehyde. All medical procedures shall be performed by a licensed physician and according to details outlined in the standard.
All sections of the formaldehyde MSDS must be reviewed by the laboratory/area supervisor in detail with all formaldehyde users. The MSDS will contain the following information specific to formaldehyde:
*Emphasize these sections, especially formaldehyde’s potential carcinogenicity.
Formaldehyde containers must be labeled to identify formaldehyde and its hazards. MSDSs must be kept up-to-date. The occupational health hazards of formaldehyde are primarily due to its toxic and irritant effects after the inhalation, direct contact with the skin or eyes or after ingestion. Acute effects of exposure by ingestion would produce severe irritation and inflammation of the mouth, throat, and stomach. Inhalation of formaldehyde would lead to irritation of the upper respiratory tract and eyes. Concentrations above 20 ppm would lead to heavy tearing, difficult breathing, cough, and burning of the nose and throat and could lead to severe respiratory injury. Dermal contact causes while discoloration, burning, drying, and possible cracking and scaling of the skin. Previously exposed persons may react to future exposure with an allergic eczematous dermatitis or hives. Eye contact by splashing can result in severe permanent corneal clouding and possibly loss of vision. Transient irritation may result from high ambient air levels.
Training must describe specific operations in the work area where formaldehyde is present and must explain safe work practices appropriate for limiting formaldehyde exposure in each procedure. Formaldehyde users shall be provided training at the time of initial assignments, and whenever exposure to formaldehyde is introduced. Training shall be repeated at least annually. It is the responsibility of the lab/area supervisor to insure all applicable employees and students receive training from EHS.
Workers shall be shown specific operations in the workplace involving HCHO by their supervisors.
Records, must be kept for exposure measurements; medical surveillance and respirator fit testing. Exposure records must be kept for 30 years, medical records for the duration of employment plus 30 years, and respirator fit testing records for the period until a more recent record is generated. These records must be made available to affected employees upon request.
Substances or groups of substances, occupational exposures associated with a technological process, and medical treatments that are known to be carcinogenic*.
2-Aminonaphthalene (see 2-Napthylamine)
Analgesic Mixtures containing Phenacetin
Arsenic (Inorganic) (under Arsenic and Certain Arsenic Compounds)
Busulfan [1,4-Butanediol Dimethylsulfonate (Myleran)]
1,4-Butanediol Dimethylsulfonate (Myleran, Busulfan)
Chloromethyl Methyl Ether
Chromium Hexavalent (under Chromium Certain Chromium Compounds)
Coal Tar (under Soots, Tars, and Mineral Oils)
Coke Oven Emissions
Creosote (Coal) (under Soots, Tars, and Mineral Oils)
Creosote (Wood) (under Soots, Tars, and Mineral Oils)
Cyclopsporin A (Cyclosporine A; Ciclosporin)
Lead Chromate (under Chromium and Certain Chromium Compounds)
MeCCNU [see 1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea]
Methoxsalen with Ultraviolet A (PUVA) Therapy (Methoxsalen not carcinogenic alone)
Myleran (see 1,4-Butanediol Dimethylsulfonate)
2-Naphthylamine (B-Napthylamine; 2-Aminonapthalene)
Piperazine Estrone Sulfate (under Conjugated Estrogens)
Sodium Equilin Sulfate (under Conjugated Estrogens)
Sodium Estrone Sulfate (under Conjugated Estrogens)
Strontium Chromate (under Chromium and Certain Chromium Compounds)
Thiotepa [Tris (1-aziridinyl) phosphine sulfide)]
Tris (1-aziridinyl) phosphine sulfide (Thiotepa)
Zinc Chromate (under Chromium and Certain Chromium Compounds)
*For the purpose of this list, "known carcinogens" are defined as those substances for which the evidence from human studies indicates that there is a causal relationship between exposure to the substance and human cancer.
Substances or groups of substances, and medical treatments which may reasonably be anticipated to be carcinogens**.
Adriamycin (Doxorubicin hydrochloride)
Aroclor (Under PCBs)
Aroclor 1254 (Under PCBs)
Aroclor 1260 (Under PCBs)
BCNU [See Bis(chloroethyl Nitrosource)
Beryllium Aluminum Alloy
Beryllium Sulfate Tetrahydrate
Beryllium Zinc Silicate
Bis(chloroethyl) Nitrosourea (BCNU)
[see Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate]
Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA)
Ceramic Fibers (Respirable Size)
Chlorinated Paraffins (C12, 60%Chlorine)
C.I. Basic Red 9 Monohydrochloride
Cristobalite (see Silica)
Decabromobiphenyl (Under PCBs)
DEHP (see Di(2-ehtylhexyl) Phthalate)
DEN (see N-Nitrosodiethlamine)
Diaminodiphenyl Ether (see 4,4-Oxydianiline)
Dibenz[a,h] acridine (PAHs)
Dibenz[a,j] acridine (PAHs)
Dibenz[a,h] anthracene (PAHs)
7H-Dibenzo[c,g] carbazone (PAHs)
Dibenzo[a,e] pyrene (PAHs)
Dibenzo[a,h] pyrene (PAHs)
Dibenzo[a,i] pyrene (PAHs)
Dibenzo[a,l] pyrene (PAHs)
1,2-Dibromoethane (Ethylene Dibromide; EDB)
1,2-Dichloroethane (Ethylene dichloride)
Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride)
1,3-Dichloropropene (Technical Grade)
N,N-Diethyldithiocarbamic Acid 2-chloroallyl ester (see Sulfallate)
Diethylnitrosamine (see N-Nitrosodiethylamine)
Diglycidyl Resorcinol Ether
1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone (see Danthron)
Direct Black 34
Direct Blue 6
Disperse Blue 1
DMN (see N-Nitrosodimethylamine)
Doxorubicin hydrochloride (see Adriomycin)
ENU [see N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea (N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea]
Estrogens (Not Conjugated):
Ethyl Carbamate (see Urethane)
Ehtyl Dibromide (see 1,2-Dibromoethane)
Ethylene Dichloride (see 1,2-Dichloroethane)
N-Ethyl-N-Nitrosourea [see N-Nitroso-Nnitrosourea]
FireMaster BP-6 (under PBBs)
FireMaster FF-1 (Hexambromobiphenyl; under PCBs)
Glass wool (Respirable Size)
Hexabromobiphenyl (FireMaster FF-1; under PCBs)
a-Hexachlorocyclohexane (under Lindane and Other Hexachlorocyclohexane Isomers)
b-Hexachlorocyclohexane (under Lindane and Other Hexachlorocyclohexane Isomers)
g-Hexachlorocyclohexane (under Lindane and Other Hexachlorocyclohexane Isomers)
Hexachlorocyclohexane (under Lindane and Other Hexachlorocyclohexane Isomers)
Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (under PAHs)
Iron Dextran Complex
Kanechlor 500 (under PCBs)
Lindane (under other Lindane and Other Hexachlorocyclohexane Isomers
MBOCA [4,4'-Methylenebis (2-chloroaniline)]
Mestranol (under Estrogens, not conjugated)
5-Methylchrysene (under PAHs)
Methylene Chloride (see Dichloromethane)
N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (see N-Nitroso-N-methylurea)
Michler's Ketone [4,4-(Dimethylamino) benzophenone]
Nitrogen Mustard Hydrochloride
N-Nitroso-n-butyl-N-(3-carboxypropyl) amine (under N-Nitrosodi-n-butylamine)
N-Nitroso-n-butyl-N-(4-carboxybutyl) amine (under N-Nitrosodi-n-butylamine)
N-Nitrosodiethylamine (Diethylnitrosamine; DEN)
N-Nitrosodimethylamine (Dimethylnitrosoamine; DMN)
N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea (N-Nitroso-N-nitrosourea; ENU)
NNK [see 4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone]
Octabromophbiphenyl (under PBBs)
PAHs (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)
PBBs (Polybrominated biphenyls)
PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls)
Perchloroethylene (see Tetrachloroethylene)
Phenacetin (See Analgesic Mixtures Containing Phenacetin)
Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs)
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
Propylenimine (see 2-Methylaziridine)
Quartz (under Silica, Crystalline Respirable Size)
Silica, Crystalline (Respirable Size):
Tridymite (under Silica, Crystalline Respirable Size)
UDMH (see 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine)
Urethane (Urethan; Ethyl carbamate)
**For the purpose of this Report, substances "which may reasonable be anticipated to be carcinogens" are defined as those for which there is a limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans or sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals.
TOXIC SUBSTANCE CONTROL ACT
The Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) gives EPA broad authority to regulate the manufacture, use, distribution in commerce and disposal of chemical substances. Under TSCA, "manufacturing is defined to include "importing", and thus all requirements applicable to manufacturers apply to importers as well. TSCA classifies chemical substances as either "existing" chemicals or "new" chemicals. How a substance is classified must be determined by consulting the TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory which lists "existing" substances. Any substance that is not on the Inventory is classified as a new chemical. If a substance is "new", it can be manufactured for a commercial purpose only if it is subject to an exemption from Premanufacture Notice (PMN) reporting or a TSCA reporting exclusion (for example, a Low Volume Exemption, or exclusion as a naturally-occurring material). Searches of the nonconfidential, public Inventory, are available at: Cornell University's TSCA Inventory (http://msds.pdc.cornell.edu/tscasrch.asp) or through purchased lists or CD rom access. Searches of the confidential Inventory require an "EPA Bona Fide Search." (http://www.epa.gov/oppt/newchems/) For substances which are "existing", the Inventory can be used to determine if there are restrictions on manufacture or use under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). There are approximately 75,000 chemical substances, as defined in §3 of the TSCA, on the Inventory at this time.
A major objective of TSCA is to characterize and evaluate the risks posed by a chemical to humans and the environment before the chemical is introduced into commerce. TSCA accomplishes this through the requirement that manufacturers (or importers) perform various kinds of health and environmental testing, use quality control in their production processes, and notify EPA of information they gain on possible adverse health effects from use of their products.
Requirements of TSCA:
6. Under certain circumstances chemicals are subject to export notice requirements. If a chemical substance or mixture is subject to export notice, an exporter must notify EPA of the country of destination the first time the chemical is shipped to the country during a calendar year.
7. TSCA Section 13 requires that any chemical substance, mixture, or article containing a chemical substance or mixture be in compliance with TSCA and, in addition, EPA requires import certification. Additional information regarding import requirements can be found in the Introduction to the Chemical Import Requirements of the Toxic Substances Control Act
There are certain exemptions for many of the TSCA requirements reviewed above. It is important to review the regulations to determine applicability to any particular circumstances. If there is any question about having to satisfy TSCA requirements, contact EHS.
OSHA LABORATORY STANDARD
(29 CFR 1910.1450)
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) There are many universities that either have MSDS’s on line or have links to sites. One of the best is the Vermont SIRI MSDS Archives at http://hazard.com/msds/
Free Internet MSDS sites are often very useful, convenient tools to access information about chemicals. I strongly recommend using them. However, computer access to MSDS’s (whether free or purchased) does not satisfy the regulatory requirement that MSDS’s for all chemicals must be available in labs. The Where to Find MSDS site is: http://www.ilpi.com/msds/index.html
Another source of MSDS’s is MSDS ONLINE at http://www.msdsonline.com/
American Chemical Society - http://www.acs.org/
Vermont SIRI File Library at http://siri.org/library/library.html offers a variety of choices related to safety.
Biology on the Net, created by The University of Cape Town provides links to many different aspects of biology. You can begin at http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/Sci_ed/GeneralBiology/
There are several very helpful resources on the Internet. Review these and bookmark any that are useful to you: Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories at http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/bmbl/bmbl-1.htm
Biosafety MSDS’s from Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb/lcdc/biosafty/msds/index.html
CDC is http://www.cdc.gov
NIH is http://www.nih.gov
University of Vermont Environmental Safety Facility http://esf.uvm.edu
Chemical Reactivity Worksheet is a free program you can use to find out about the reactivity of substances or mixtures of substances. http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/chemaids/react.html
Safety Archives http://siri.org/mail allows "search" on almost any safety topic.
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), producer of the world's largest and most comprehensive databases of chemical information. http://info.cas.org/welcome.html
UVM Laboratory Safety Page http://esf.uvm.edu/labsafety/labsafety.html The University of Vermont. The Housekeeping section has some great pictures.
Chemical Information Links - http://tis.eh.doe.gov/web/chem_safety/other_links.html
Links to Useful E H & S Web Sites - http://www.dehs.umn.edu/Links.html
University of Alabama EHS Web Page
The EHS Web page has gone on line. You can find us at http://bama.ua.edu/~ehs. If your browser does not discern frames, use http://bama.ua.edu/~ehs/rightpag.html